December 23, 2011

Brucellosis ( Brucella infection in humans: Mediterranean fever, Malta fever )

December 23, 2011
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella can live long in air and resistant to dry conditions. There are several species of bacteria that cause of Brucellosis, such as Brucella abortus (in cattle), Brucella canis (in dog), Brucella militensis (in sheep and goat), and Brucella suis (in pig). On a pet like dog and cats can be infected by Brucella too. 

Brucellosis is widely spread in various parts of the world, but not invade the area that actually maintain animal health and implement strict biological safety (biosecurity). Indonesia and other countries in Asia, entered the country at high risk of this disease. In general, people infect with this disease in 3 ways :
1. Consume food or drink that have been contaminated Brucella. Humans who drink milk unpasteurizes or eat meat unperfection cooked. Transmission generally occurs on the transmission of Brucella melitensis.
2.  Breathing contaminated with germs Brucella (inhalation). This event usually infect people who frequent contact with animals, such as pet lover, breeders, laboratory workers, abattoir workers, veterinarians and staff.
3.  Skin, especially skin sores. These event generally infect veterinarians and his staff who have contact with aborted material and Brucella abortus vaccine possessed or Brucella melitensis by accident.

The biggest incidence of Brucellosis caused by drinking raw milk and eat cheese or ice cream is not pasteurized properly (unperfect pasteurized). For Brucella canis which infects dog often can be contagious to human if contact with blood, sperm, aborted material, membranes aborted, patient urine, and placenta are aborted dog. In animals these germs can cause miscarriage, infertility, disorders of the testes male, and decreased sperm count. Animal unshowed clinical symptoms but, this disease will get positive result of blood serum. The organism will stay in the reproductive organs that can leas to infertility or miscarriage. Human who attacked with Brucellosis will show clinical symptoms similar like flu including fever, sweating, headache, muscle pain and weakness, limpadenopati, enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), chills, inflammation of the testes and the common case is undulan fever. Some patients reported having anorexia, difficulty defecating, vomiting, constipation, infection of the central nervous system, reproductive disorders, genitourinary, and attack the lining of the heart.

Prevention of Brucellosis can be done by using protective clothing and masks when handling animals that suffered a miscarrieage as well as the laboratory's sample handling animals suspected of Brucellosis infected, when drinking pasteurized milk should be perfeclty at first, and using protective clothing complete with boots and a mask when doing vaccination, and do not approach the Brucellosis endemic area if it is not interested. For high risk workers should perform regular blood checks. Diagnosis for this disease can be used rapid agglutination tests, blood cultures, and serologis. Antibiotic can be used to combat this disease. Approximately 80% of cases can be treated with antibiotics, which failed to moderate cases deal it with only less than 2%.

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