October 10, 2013

Cow feses as Mortar

October 10, 2013
"The other research from my friend A.Dimas B. engineering student on Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta colaboration with me as the farm extension on mass media used television local Gajayana TV at Malang, Indonesia"

Well, i wanna write about my college thesis for my undergraduate (S.Pt / Animal science). In this research. i became farm extension / agricultural extension. Dimas as my friend hv new innovation about how to process cow feses became more worth and so useful for farmer or can be for middle class.

We know...Today, farm business especially "livestock" are now showing very bright potential. Its can been seeing by increasing public awareness of animal protein , so demanding protein food from animal origin is increasing from year to year.  However , we need to know behind the development of the farm business is rapidly increasing due to the large turn out the impact of efforts in the field of farm livestock waste is accumulated in the form of feces.

Potential farm waste such as manure (feces ) in Indonesia is quite large . It can be seen from a single adult cow feces produces about 20 kg / day . Based on these data if converted on an industrial scale with the number of dairy cows between 1500-7000 tail , it will generate as much as 30-140 tons of feces per day or approximately 10.9 to 51.1 thousand tons per year . This amount is only so big of a dairy industry alone , not counting the waste of medium and small scale enterprises , as well as individual farmers in increasing number.

Nowadays global warming (global warming) to be a very serious problem, especially in the livestock sector. In the report of the United Nations (FAO), entitled "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental issues and options" which was released in November 2006, said that livestock accounts for most of the greenhouse gases to approximately 18%, this figure exceeds the greenhouse gases generated by the combined worldwide transportation by 13%. Besides farm also releases carbon dioxide by 9% and 37% methane. Furthermore fecal waste generated niitrogen livestock contributes 65% and 64% ammonia oxides that cause acid rain.

Management of manure waste (feces) should be done properly. When manure is not managed properly, the waste generated will cause problems such as environmental aspects of production and cause odor, the source of the spread of disease to livestock and humans, and when adjacent to residential locations will lead to protests from the public and water pollution.

In general, innovation in the form of sewage treatment farms manure (feces ) has been done , such as the use of feces as composting , biogas , a mixture of catfish feed , brick making , and pottery . Student creativity in the program report , Augustine Dimas Bramudya which is civil engineering students from the University of Gadjah Mada inspired Syammahfuz research Chazali alumnus of the Faculty of Agriculture , Gadjah Mada University who has managed to mix cow manure as a raw material of brick and pottery encouraged research to develop research Dimas furthermore , by making alternative processing cow manure into mortar . Mortar or adhesive species is used to construct a brick . In general, the mortar is made from a mixture of fine aggregate , water , and adhesive materials such as Portland cement , lime , and others. Portland cement is widely used because of its strength is the highest compared to the others , which ranged between 3-17 MPa ( Tjokroadimuljo , 2007) .

Utilization of farm waste manure in the field of construction materials has started long ago. Sasak tribe in Dusun Sade, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara and the Zulu in South Africa utilizing manure waste (stool) as flooring materials and wall coverings. It is believed to cool the house during the dry season and warm the house during the rainy season (Dimas, 2012). This great potential when treated with cow manure waste through proper mortar manufacturing technology, is expected to provide an alternative material as a mixture of plaster that is cheaper, eco-friendly and if used in the manufacture of construction utilization corral will provide a sense of comfort to the animals .

Conventionally, the role of extension is limited in its obligation to deliver innovation and influence through targeted outreach methods and techniques specific to them (the target extension) it with his own awareness and ability to adopt innovations delivered (Mardikanto 1993). The process should involve the interaction of extension and farmers in rural communities. Characteristics and background of different targets is a challenge faced by the extension. Therefore, in any implementation of extension, extension agents must understand and be able to choose the best extension method as a way to be elected to the achievement of the implementation of the extension (Soesmono, 1975). Instructor who serves as a facilitator for the breeders need to develop new methods in the counseling process.

This research collaboration utilizing advances in technology of mass media as a forum for the dissemination of information television innovation knowledge about waste treatment cow manure into mortar . The use of the media in the process of farm extension will hopefully help clarify the information submitted by the instructor to the target . Information conveyed through the medium of television would be more interesting to look at audio visual , more interactive , can overcome the limitations of space, time and the human senses . The importance of the use of media in the counseling process aims to increase the knowledge , skills , change attitudes , and behaviors that are the result of the learning process in extension activities , which is where success is determined by the effectiveness of media outreach , media outreach and effectiveness of using largely determined by the number of senses used ( Zakaria , 2002) .

Television is one of the most influential mass media on society . The use of television as a medium of education provide an advantage, because the community does not just listen to the sound target extension , but can also see and pay attention to all that want to revealed variability extension , either through voice , movement , and even examples of demonstrations or conversation . Television can be a very effective medium for influencing the attitudes , knowledge , and skills targets were in the conscious to try ( Mardikanto , 1993) . This media to stimulate hearing and vision , so that the result obtained is maximal . These results can be achieved due to the five senses of the most widely distributing knowledge is the eye to the brain (approximately 75 % to 87 % ) , while 13 % to 25% of the knowledge gained or channeled through other senses ( Maulana , 2009) .

Television broadcast media initially only intended for broadcasting images ( video ) and sound ( audio ) , so that the process of feedback ( feedback ) between the extension and the target is not the case . Process that occurs only in the form of one-way communication process . Communication is one-way message delivery signaled the direction of a person or institution to a person or group of people , both directly ( face to face ) or through media such as television without the feedback process between the source ( source ) and communicator ( communicator ) ( Mulyana , 2004) . However , mass communication through television today have tended to two-way ( interactive ) . An event in the form of television talk shows offer an event that involves direct questioning by listeners or viewers via an interactive telephone . In the process occurs feedback ( feedback ) , which is what is conveyed by the message recipient to the message source and used as a source of the message as an indication of the effectiveness of the message he said before : if understandable , acceptable , and so forth , so that based on feedback the source can change the message later , if necessary, to fit the purpose ( Mulyano , 2004) .

Knowledge gained by the people in the show on television is the result of knowing after someone sensing to perform a particular object . Sensing occurs through the five senses , the senses of hearing, smell , sight , taste , touch , and most human knowledge acquired through the eyes and ears ( Sunaryo , 2004) . In accordance with that suggested by Roger (1995 ) , an innovation will lead to some degree of uncertainty which can be reduced with the information , and the use of mass media channels are more effective in increasing knowledge about the innovation .

Aired a television broadcast an audio- visual means of mass persuasion , therefore the television may play a greater role in the process of change and behave in society . Problems of geographical conditions , limitations and reach locations FEA extension be the main reason , " why this study uses the television broadcast media? " . This research was conducted in order to analyze the level of knowledge researchers dairy farmers to processing cow manure into mortar in displaying special dialogue program on Gajayana TV Malang

How to make "mortar" ?

Materials and equipment required to make the mortar are:

  • Sand
  • Cement
  • Dried Cattle Feces
  • Equipment Tampers
  • Shovels
  • Bucket
  • Sand Filter 5 mm or Bulkhead Screen Mosquito

Step-by- step how to manufacture mortar :
1 ) Raw materials prepared fresh cow feces , taken directly from the cage or other storage device .

2 ) cattle feces were dried in the sun or diving 4 days for 8 days to a more shady spot , keep it away from water or damp areas .

3 ) dried cow feces cleaned from organic hard objects such as wood, bamboo , and mixed waste .

4 ) Once dry , the next stool pounded with pestle contained in the household , such as rice pounder or other objects .

5 ) Dried Feces then filtered using filter sand ( size of the smallest on the market )

6 ) After all the faecal material ready , then collected in a sack to be used as a temporary storage before use.

7 ) The process of making is done by preparing a mixture of ingredients in the mix proportions have been determined previously that 2 buckets of sand , 40 % cement buckets , pails and 60 % cow feces .

8 ) First of all , cattle feces and semen mixed first so that the mixture is homogeneous . Then , sand is added to the mix - cement stool earlier . The addition is done per bucket for the results obtained better .
Each addition of sand interspersed with the addition of a little water to taste ( check by taking the grout is removed, the batter is not too soft and not too hard to seem a little dense and did not fall down when confronted )

9 ) the finished dough can be directly used for the manufacture of a brick wall with a height < 1 m .

Great potential is expected to provide an alternative material mix plaster bricks that are environmentally friendly , and can reduce environmental pollution due to the many cow manure that has not been utilized and is also expected to provide benefits to the community .

2 komentar:

articsocie said...

asalamo alaikum.. hii Diajeng Indria Kusumawardhani, thank u for sharing. I just readout interesting website’s your awesome interesting and informative topic. I really appreciate your thought about it. It’s really so useful for all..

Diajeng Indria Kusumawardhani said...

Thanks you dear... :)

Post a Comment